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   Шпаргалки по english




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"Shopping"

I would like to tell you about shopping in the United Kingdom. Marks & Spencer is Britain's favorite store. Tourists love it too. It attracts a great variety of customers from house wives to millionaires. Princess Diana, Dustin Hoffman and the British Prime-minister are just a few of its famous customers. Last year it made a profit of 529 million pounds. Which is more than 10 million a week. It all started 105 years ago when a young Polish immigrant Michael Marks had a stall in Leeds market. He didn't have many things to sell: some cotton, a little wool, lots of buttons and a few shoelaces. Above his stall he put the now famous notice: "Don't ask how much - it's a penny." Ten years later he met Tom Spencer and together they started Penny stalls in many towns in the North of England. Today there are 564 branches of Marks & Spencer all over the world: in America, Canada, Spain, France, Belgium and Hungary. The store bases its business on 3 principals: good value, good quality and good service. Also, it changes with the times; once it was all jumpers and knickers. Now it is food, furniture and flowers as well. Top fashion designers advice on styles of clothes. Perhaps, the most important key to its success is its happy well-trained staff. Conditions of work are excellent. There are company doctors, dentists, hairdressers, etc. And all the staff can have lunch for under 40 pence. Surpassingly tastes in food and clothes are international. What sells well in Paris, sells just as well in Newcastle and Moscow. Their best selling clothes are: for women - jumpers and knickers (M & S is famous for its knickers); for men - shirts, socks, pajamas, dressing gowns and suits; for children - underwear and socks. Best sellers in food include: fresh chickens, vegetables and sandwiches, "Chicken Kiev" is internationally the most popular convince food. Shopping in Britain is also famous for its Freshfood. Freshfood is a chain of food stores and very successful supermarkets which has grown tremendously in the twenty years since it was founded, and now it has branches in the High Streets of all the towns of any size in Britain. In the beginning the stores sold only foodstuffs, but in recent years they have diversified enormously and now sell clothes, books, records, electrical and domestic equipment. The success of the chain has been due to an enterprising management and to attractive layout and display in the stores. It has been discovered that impulse buying accounts for almost 35 per cent of the total turn over of the stores. The stores are organized completely for self-service and customers are encouraged to wander around the spaciously laid out stands. Special free gifts and reduced prices are used to tempt customers into the stores and they can't stand the temptation.


Hobbies

Hobbies differ like tastes. If you have chosen a hobby according to your character and taste you are lucky because your life becomes more interesting.Hobbies are devided into 4 large groups: doing, making, collecting and learning things. The most popular of all hobby groups is doing things It includes gardening, travelling, playing games and so on. Making things includes drawing, painting, writing music. My main hobby is to collect compact disks. No matter what kind of hobby a person has, he always has the opportunity of learning from it. By reading about the fthings he is interested in, he is adding to what he knows. Learning things can be the most exciting aspect of a hobby. Hobbies


Travelling

Every people on all over the world like travel. It’s oldest kind of resting people are contrive many ways of travelling by car, bus, ship, plane, aeronautic, on foots. And many other ways.

But the oldest one is to travel on foots.

My live is not so long. But I travel all of this way . Each of this kind of travel good by its own way. To travel on your own foots for example kind when you may take care about you health because you can go every there, in mountains, forest look in a beautiful views, breathe with clear saturation ozone air. Sitting near fire and listening animals, nature and guitar.

Travelling lets people to meet the places of interest on over the world. Try different foods, listening to different music. And in general to know many more about countries.

You can do it. Make your choice. Which kind of travelling do you choose it’s no so important.


Season

There are four season in a year. Winter is the coldest part of the year. It is time when ground and tress covered with a snow. The rivers and lakes breezed. People try to get on more warm close. It’s early get dark and sunrise is late. Sun is shine but not warm.

But there is and leisure side of this season people is skiing, skating, play hockey and other winter games.

After long cold winter come long-awaited spring.

This is time of year when the trees cowered with a buds, ground with a green grass and beautiful flowers. Girls began takes off their winters close and show their beautiful bodies.

Than goes the most likely part of year for all people. It’s a summer. People goon vacations, to the country. Summer is the best part of the year for the students and scholars.

After summer goes autumn. The weather is bad there are rainy and dry evenings. Dirty roads. Students and pupil begin learning. But one time, one famous man said:” The nature doesn’t have bad weather”.


Moscow

Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre. It was founded 8 centurys ago by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky in 1147. Gradually the city became more and more powerfull. In the 13th century Moscow was the centre of the struggle of Russian lands for the liberation from the tartar yoke. In the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg in 1712; Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That's why it became the main target of Napoleon's attack. After the October revolution Moscow became the capital again. Now moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its total area is about nine hundred square kilometres. The population of the city is over 8 million. Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The heart of Moscow is Red Square. The Kremlin and St. Basil's Cathedral (Vasily Blazheny) are masterpieces of encient Russian architecture. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Palace of Congresses, the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. St. Basil's Cathedral was built in the mid-16th century in memory of the victory over Kazan. One of the well-known Kremlin museums is the Armouty Chamber. The famous golden cap of Monomach, the first Russian imperial crown of Catherin the second and many other historical items are exhibited there. There are more than 80 museums in Moscow. The Historical Museum, the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, the Tretyakov State Picture Gallery are world famous and the largest. Moscow is famous for its theatres. The best-known of them are Bolshoi, Maly and Art theatres. Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament (the Duma) and the centre of political life of the country.


Great Britain

The United Kingdom of G.B. and Northen Irelands is situated on the British Isles/ The British Isles consists of two large islands, G.B. and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometres. The UK is made up of four countries:England, Wales, Scotland and Northen Ireland. GB consists of England, Scotland and Wales and doesn't include Northen Ireland. The capital of the UK is London. The British Isles are separated from European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of GB is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. There are a lot of rivers in GB, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters if Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. The weather in GB is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening and the wrong side out. The english people say:"Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather." The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or t\when it rains all day long. The weather is the favourite conversational topic in GB. After they greet each other they start talking the weather. The best time of the year in GB is spring(of course, it rains in spring too). The two worst months in britain are January and February. They are cold, damp and unpleasant. The best place in the world then is at home by the big fire. Summer months are rather cold and there can be a lot of rainy days. So most people who look forward to summer holidays, plan to go abroad for the summer. The most unpleasant aspect of English weather is fog and smog. This is extremely bad in big cities especially in London. The fog spreads everywhere so cars move along slowly and people can't see each other. They try not to be run over by a car but still accidents are frequent in the fog.

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